Chaufa Johnson was shot and killed in the parking lot of Forest Ridge Apartments, located off Albemarle Road, shortly before 5 p.m. Wednesday.
Police issued murder and robbery warrants for Barber on Thursday. He was taken into custody shortly before 4 p.m.
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The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department's Violent Criminal Apprehension Team tracked down Barber's location after the warrants were issued, police said. He was located in a car being driven by a friend of his when officers initiated a traffic stop.
The car was subsequently involved in a crash. No other vehicles were involved, police said.
Barber and the woman who was driving the car were taken to the hospital. Once released, they will both be taken to police headquarters for questioning, investigators said.
Police said Barber and Johnson knew each other.
Johnson's friends said they were standing with a group of other teenagers in the apartment complex's parking lot. Police said Barber shot Johnson in the abdomen and then stole several items from her before driving away. Police have not said what they believe Barber took.
Johnson graduated from East Mecklenburg High School in June. She was enrolled at Central Piedmont Community College and was set to begin classes in January.
"My daughter was a wonderful, wonderful human being and she's gone from me forever," Andrea Johnson, the teen's mother, said.
She said she has a message for her daughter's killer.
"You have left me lost, with nothing," she said. "She was my best friend in the world."
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