As emergency rooms and intensive care units across the country begin to fill with patients with COVID-19, the respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus, hospitals and pharmacies have run into a new shortage: albuterol inhalers, a critical rescue medication that expands a user's constricted airways and allows them to breath more easily, ABC News reported.
These inhalers have suddenly become a first line of defense for emergency room physicians treating patients who possibly have COVID-19 and are in respiratory distress. In the wake of this massive shift in demand, pharmacists and emergency room physicians from across the country are seeing shortages, the American Pharmacists Association confirmed to ABC News.
"We are deeply concerned about the albuterol inhaler shortage, as it is now being widely used to treat COVID-19 breathing issues," the American Pharmacists Association's Ilisa Bernstein told ABC News. "Patients, young and old, have long relied on albuterol inhalers for asthma and other breathing disorders. It’s important for asthmatic patients to have these inhalers on-hand to manage sudden onset of symptoms."
Hospital doctors rely on albuterol for many causes of airway constriction or inflammation, including COVID-19. Typically, these doctors use a nebulizer, not an inhaler, which turns the albuterol into a mist and is then inhaled through a tube, for more effective delivery. But there is a growing concern -- so far unproven -- that using a nebulizer on a patient with COVID-19 might aerosolize not only the medicine but also the virus, creating a greater risk of disease spread within the hospital.
For this reason, inhalers have suddenly become the tool of choice in emergency rooms to quickly treat many patients who are struggling to breathe. It's caused a dramatically increased demand for the inhalers and resulted in the shortage seen by patients, according to the doctors and pharmacists who spoke to ABC News.
The American Pharmacists Association said some pharmacists are having to scramble for authorization to provide patients alternative medications because they don't have enough of the inhalers.
GlaxoSmithKline, one of the largest manufacturers of albuterol, told ABC News it is "proactively assessing existing contingency plans, which include increasing production" after the company experienced an heightened demand.
Teva Pharmaceuticals, another manufacturer, said it is seeing "historic" demand for the drug "likely as a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic," and that it is producing at maximum capacity.
Both GlaxoSmithKline and Teva said they do not anticipate an interruption to supply.
Cardinal Health, a distributor of the medication, said it has implemented a "fair share" allocation process but also would not quantify the increased demand.
For the 25 million people in the United States with asthma, a condition that can be life-threatening and the population most often in need of albuterol, COVID-19 may pose a higher risk of causing serious illness. The infection can affect the function of the respiratory tract, cause an asthma attack and/or possibly lead to pneumonia and acute respiratory disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Amid the pandemic, Dr. Michael Blaiss, the executive medical director of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology suggests that anyone who suffers from asthma ensure that they have a proper supply of their medication.
"Anybody's gonna get concerned if they call their pharmacist and they can't get their inhaler," Blaiss said.
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